In realistic approach, the story, sometimes very extensive, develops from the perspective of so-called omniscient narrator, who organizes knowledge about the world nearly in a scientific way, giving the reader a sense of stability and balance even when the feature events have a tragic character. The world is presented from the perspective of average receiver, the realists broke the individuality and uniqueness of their characters and introduced common, ordinary people’s lives. Realistic novels are very detailed in descriptions of locations, people, landscapes. Elements of the presented world form a coherent, structured wholeness. The omniscient narrator knows all about the characters’ psyche, their relations and dilemmas, and the observation became realist authors’ main domain in creating their works. The theories of realism referred to the concept of mimesis, which refers to socially accepted representation of reality. In the principles of realism the process of creation is in a way a study of society and nature, based on solid knowledge and careful observation. Communicative and objective presentation is manifested in the form of language, that is distinguished by the elimination of direct author’s comment; it focused on the knowledge about the world of man, abandoning fiction and fantasy on the account of truth and present.

The modernist approach, on the other hand, focuses on the uniqueness of individual experience. The knowledge and facts are not as relevant as deeper understanding and meaning of life. The thoughts and feelings of the character are often showed in extreme, emotional way. Modernists very often had hedonistic points of view, looking for the antidote to the “pain of existence”; they introduced new literary technics like stream of consciousness or interior monologue. There was no restrictions in style and convention, their creation was somehow a representation of author’s state of mind, stressing unique way of being and asking a lot of rhetorical, existential questions about the world and human relations.  For example, Virginia Woolf’ s “waves” – there is not much of a plot there, but the narration is very complex and ambiguous, and a specific rhythm of writing allows us to experience the book more profoundly.  

The technics of reality representations in literature have one thing in common – the need to correspond with other art form. The synthesis of art is a capacity in which the experience specific to one sense is received through another sense. For example, Guillaume Apollinaire, a french poet, in his collection “Calligrammes”, combined traditional poetic form with a modern imagery. He treated the text as a free graphical composition, giving the whole a visual poetry character. The purpose of incorporating other art forms or technics to present the reality is to deepen the experience, to intensify the emotional impact, to show ordinary message in unusual way, and all that in the belief, that arts are derived from a single, mystical source, but reach different senses, which completes the understanding of the message.

Ela Furyk